Baptism of Desire and of Blood
MATER DEI SEMINARY newsletter "Adsum" (January, 2004)
From the teachings of the Popes, the Council of Trent,
the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the Roman Martyrology,
Church Fathers, Doctors and Theologians of the Church
1. Council of Trent 1545-1563
Canons on the Sacraments in General: - (Canon 4):
"If anyone shall say that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary for salvation, but are superfluous, and that although all are not necessary for every individual, without them or without the desire of them (sine eis aut eorum voto), through faith alone men obtain from God the grace of justification; let him be anathema."
Decree on Justification - (Session 6, Chapter 4):
"In these words a description of the justification of a sinner is given as being a translation from that state in which man is born a child of the first Adam to the state of grace and of the 'adoption of the Sons' (Rom. 8:15) of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Savior and this translation after the promulgation of the Gospel cannot be effected except through the laver of regeneration or a desire for it, (sine lavacro regenerationis aut eius voto) as it is written: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter in the kingdom of God" (John 3:5).
2. St. Alphonsus Liguori 1691-1787
Moral Theology - (Bk. 6):
"But baptism of desire is perfect conversion to God by contrition or love of God above all things accompanied by an explicit or implicit desire for true Baptism of water, the place of which it takes as to the remission of guilt, but not as to the impression of the [baptismal] character or as to the removal of all debt of punishment. It is called 'of wind' ['flaminis'] because it takes place by the impulse of the Holy Ghost Who is called a wind ['flamen']. Now it is de fide that men are also saved by Baptism of desire, by virtue of the Canon 'Apostolicam De Presbytero Non Baptizato' and the Council of Trent, Session 6, Chapter 4, where it is said that no one can be saved 'without the laver of regeneration or the desire for it.'"
3. 1917 Code of Canon Law
On Ecclesiastical Burial - (Canon 1239. 2)
"Catechumens who, through no fault of their own, die without Baptism, are to be treated as baptized."
The Sacred Canons by Rev. John A. Abbo. St.T.L., J.C.D., and Rev. Jerome D. Hannan, A.M., LL.B., S.T.D., J.C.D.
Commentary on the Code:
"The reason for this rule is that they are justly supposed to have met death united to Christ through Baptism of Desire."
4. Pope Innocent III
To your inquiry we respond thus: We assert without hesitation (on the authority of the holy Fathers Augustine and Ambrose) that the priest whom you indicated (in your letter) had died without the water of baptism, because he persevered in the faith of Holy Mother the Church and in the confession of the name of Christ, was freed from original sin and attained the joy of the heavenly fatherland. Read (brother) in the eighth book of Augustine's City of God where among other things it is written, "Baptism is ministered invisibly to one whom not contempt of religion but death excludes." Read again the book also of the blessed Ambrose concerning the death of Valentinian where he says the same thing. Therefore, to questions concerning the dead, you should hold the opinions of the learned Fathers, and in your church you should join in prayers and you should have sacrifices offered to God for the priest mentioned. (Denzinger 388)
Debitum pastoralis officii, August 28, 1206:
You have, to be sure, intimated that a certain Jew, when at the point of death, since he lived only among Jews, immersed himself in water while saying: "I baptize myself in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."
We respond that, since there should be a distinction between the one baptizing and the one baptized, as is clearly gathered from the words of the Lord, when He says to the Apostles: "Go baptize all nations in the name etc." (cf. Matt. 28:19), the Jew mentioned must be baptized again by another, that it may be shown that he who is baptized is one person, and he who baptizes another... If, however, such a one had died immediately, he would have rushed off to his heavenly home without delay because of the faith of the sacrament, although not because of the sacrament of faith. (Denzinger 413)
5. Pope St. Pius V 1566-1572
Ex omnibus afflictionibus, October 1, 1567:
Condemned the following erroneous propositions of Michael du Bay:
- Perfect and sincere charity, which is from a "pure heart and good conscience and a faith not feigned" (1 Tim. 1:5) can be in catechumens as well as in penitents without the remission of sins.
- That charity which is the fullness of the law is not always connected with the remission of sins.
- A catechumen lives justly and rightly and holily, and observes the commandments of God, and fulfills the law through charity, which is only received in the laver of Baptism, before the remission of sins has been obtained.
6. St. Ambrose
"I hear you express grief because he [Valentinian] did not receive the Sacrament of Baptism. Tell me, what else is there in us except the will and petition? But he had long desired to be initiated... and expressed his intention to be baptized... Surely, he received [it] because he asked [for it]."
7. St. Augustine
City of God
"I do not hesitate to place the Catholic catechumen, who is burning with the love of God, before the baptized heretic... The centurion Cornelius, before Baptism, was better than Simon [Magus], who had been baptized. For Cornelius, even before Baptism, was filled with the Holy Ghost, while Simon, after Baptism, was puffed up with an unclean spirit" (De Bapt. C. Donat., IV 21).
"Baptism is administered invisibly to one whom not contempt of religion but death excludes." (Denzinger 388)
8. St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa, Article 1, Part III, Q. 68:
"I answer that, the sacrament of Baptism may be wanting to someone in two ways. First, both in reality and in desire; as is the case with those who neither are baptized, nor wished to be baptized: which clearly indicates contempt of the sacrament, in regard to those who have the use of the free will. Consequently those to whom Baptism is wanting thus, cannot obtain salvation: since neither sacramentally nor mentally are they incorporated in Christ, through Whom alone can salvation be obtained.
"Secondly, the sacrament of Baptism may be wanting to anyone in reality but not in desire: for instance, when a man wishes to be baptized, but by some ill-chance he is forestalled by death before receiving Baptism. And such a man can obtain salvation without being actually baptized, on account of his desire for Baptism, which desire is the outcome of faith that worketh by charity, whereby God, Whose power is not yet tied to visible sacraments, sanctifies man inwardly. Hence Ambrose says of Valentinian, who died while yet a catechumen: 'I lost him whom I was to regenerate: but he did not lose the graces he prayed for.' "
9. St. Robert Bellarmine, Doctor of the Church 1542-1621
Liber II, Caput XXX:
"Boni Catehecumeni sunt de Ecclesia, interna unione tantum, non autem externa" (Good catechumens are of the Church, by internal union only, not however, by external union).
References continue in the Winter, 2004,
issue of "The Reign of Mary" magazine.
10. Pope Pius IX 1846-1878
Singulari Quadam, 1854:
174. "It must, of course, be held as a matter of faith that outside the apostolic Roman Church no one can be saved, that the Church is the only ark of salvation, and that whoever does not enter it will perish in the flood. On the other hand, it must likewise be held as certain that those who are affected by ignorance of the true religion, if it is invincible ignorance, are not subject to any guilt in this matter before the eyes of the Lord. Now, then, who could presume in himself an ability to set the boundaries of such ignorance, taking into consideration the natural differences of peoples, lands, native talents, and so many other factors? Only when we have been released from the bonds of this body and see God just as He is (see John 3:2) shall we really understand how close and beautiful a bond joins Divine mercy with Divine justice."
Quanto Conficiamur Moerore, 1863:
"...We all know that those who are afflicted with invincible ignorance with regard to our holy religion, if they carefully keep the precepts of the natural law that have been written by God in the hearts of men, if they are prepared to obey God, and if they lead a virtuous and dutiful life, can attain eternal life by the power of divine light and grace."
11. Pope Pius XII 1939-1958
Mystical Body of Christ, June 29, 1943:
"As you know, Venerable Brethren, from the very beginning of Our Pontificate We have committed to the protection and guidance of heaven those who do not belong to the visible organization of the Catholic Church, solemnly declaring that after the example of the Good Shepherd We desire nothing more ardently than that they may have life and have it more abundantly... For even though unsuspectingly they are related to the Mystical Body of the Redeemer in desire and resolution, they still remain deprived of so many precious gifts and helps from heaven, which one can only enjoy in the Catholic Church."
12. Fr. A. Tanquery
Dogmatic Brevior, ART.IV, Section I,II - 1945 (1024-1)
The Baptism of Desire. Contrition, or perfect charity, with at least an implicit desire for Baptism, supplies in adults the place of the baptism of water as respects the forgiveness of sins.
This is certain.
Explanation: a) An implicit desire for Baptism, that is, one that is included in a general purpose of keeping all the commandments of God is, as all agree, sufficient in one who is invincibly ignorant of the law of Baptism; likewise, according to the more common opinion, in one who knows the necessity of Baptism.
b) Perfect charity, with a desire for Baptism, forgives original sin and actual sins, and therefore infuses sanctifying grace; but it does not imprint the Baptismal character and does not of itself remit the whole temporal punishment due for sin; whence, when the opportunity offers, the obligation remains on one who was sanctified in this manner of receiving the Baptism of water.
13. Fr. Dominic Prummer, O.P.
Moral Theology, 1949:
· "Baptism of Desire which is a perfect act of charity that includes at least implicitly the desire of Baptism by water";
· "Baptism of Blood which signifies martyrdom endured for Christ prior to the reception of Baptism by water";
· "Regarding the effects of Baptism of Blood and Baptism of Desire... both cause sanctifying grace. ...Baptism of Blood usually remits all venial and temporal punishment..."
Additional references from a Mater Dei Seminary
pamphlet entitled "Baptism of Desire and of Blood".
14. Fr. Francis O'Connell
Outlines of Moral Theology - 1953:
- "Baptism of Desire ... is an act of divine charity or perfect contrition..."
- "These means (i.e. Baptism of Blood & Desire) presuppose in the recipient at least the implicit will to receive the sacrament."
"...Even if an infant can gain the benefit of the Baptism of Blood if he is put to death by a person actuated by hatred for the Christian faith..."
15. Mgr. J. H. Hervé
Manuale Theologiae Dogmaticae (Vol. III: chap. IV) - 1931
II. On those for whom Baptism of water can be supplied:
"The various baptisms: from the Council of Trent itself and from the things stated, it stands firm that Baptism is necessary, yet in fact or in desire; therefore in an extraordinary case it can be supplied. Further, according to the Catholic doctrine, there are two things by which the sacrament of Baptism can be supplied, namely an act of perfect charity with the desire of Baptism and the death as martyr. Since these two are a compensation for Baptism of water, they themselves are called Baptism, too, in order that they may be comprehended with it under one as it were generic name; so the act of love with desire for Baptism is called Baptismus flaminis (Baptism of the Spirit) and the martyrium (Baptism of Blood)."
16. Fr. H. Noldin, S.J. - Fr. A. Schmit, S.J.
Summa theologiae moralis (Vol. III de Sacramentis); Bk 2 Quaestio prima - 1929:
"Baptism of spirit (flaminis) is perfect charity or contrition, in which the desire in fact to receive the sacrament of Baptism is included; perfect charity and perfect contrition however have the power to confer sanctifying grace."
17. Fr. Arthur Vermeersch, S.J.
Theologiae moralis (Vol. III, Tractatus II) - 1948:
"The Baptism of spirit (flaminis) is an act of perfect charity or contrition, in so far as it contains at least a tacit desire of the Sacrament. Therefore it can be had only in adults. It does not imprint a character; ...but it takes away all mortal sin together with the sentence of eternal penalty, according to: 'He who loves me, is loved by my Father.' (John 14:21)"
18. Fr. Ludovico Billot, S.J.
De Ecclesiae Sacramentis (Vol. I); Quaestio LXVI; Thesis XXIV - 1931:
"Baptism of spirit (flaminis), which is also called of repentance or of desire is nothing else than an act of charity or perfect contrition includeing a desire of the Sacrament, according to what has been said above, namely that, the heart of everyone is moved by the Holy Ghost to believe, and to love God, and to be sorry for his sins."
19. Fr. Eduardus Genicot, S.J.
Theologiae Moralis Institutiones (Vol II); Tractatus XII - 1902:
"Baptism of the Spirit (flaminis) consists in an act of perfect charity or contrition, with which there is always an infusion of sanctifying grace connected...
Both are called 'of desire' (in voto)...; perfect charity, because it has always connected the desire, at least the implicit one of receiving this sacrament, absolutely necessary for salvation."
20. Fr. Aloysia Sabetti, S.J. Fr. Timotheo Barrett, S.J.
Compendium Theologiae Moralis; Tractatus XII De Baptismo (Chap. 1) - 1926:
"Baptism, the gate and foundation of the Sacraments in fact or at least in desire, is necessary for all unto salvation...
From the Baptism of water, which is called of river (Baptismus fluminis), is from Baptism of the Spirit (Baptismus flaminis) and Baptism of Blood, by which Baptism properly speaking can be supplied, if this be impossible. The first one is a full conversion to God through perfect contrition or charity, in so far as it contains an either explicit or at least implicit will to receive Baptism of water ... Baptism of Spirit (flaminis) and Baptism of Blood are called Baptism of desire (in voto).
21. Roman Martyrology
January 23: At Rome, St. Emerentiana, Virgin and Martyr, who was stoned by the heathen while still a catechumen, when she was praying at the tomb of St. Agnes, whose foster-sister she was.
April 12: At Braga, in Portugal, St. Victor, Martyr, who, while still yet a catechumen, refused to worship an idol, and confessed Christ Jesus with great constancy, and so after many torments, he merited to be baptized in his own blood, his head being cut off.
August 25: At Arles in France, another Blessed Genesius, who undertook the office copyist, when he refused to transcribe the impious edicts whereby the Christians were ordered to be punished and, casting away his registers, in public he proclaimed himself a Christian, was arrested and beheaded and received the glory of martyrdom, being baptized in his own blood.
Catechisms that teach Baptism of Desire1. A Catechism for Inquirers by Rev. Joseph I. Malloy, C.S.P. Reference page 28. New York: Paulist Press, 1927. Permissu Superiorum: Joseph McSorely, C.S.P., Superior General. Nihil Obstat: Arthur J. Scalan, S.T.D., Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: Patrick Cardinal Hayes, Archbishop of New York. 2. A Catholic Catechism for the Parochial Schools and Sunday Schools of the United States. By Rev. James Groenings, S.J., translated by the Very Rev. James Rockliff, S.J. Reference page 101. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1900. With the Approbation of the Most Rev. Archbishop of New York and of Religious Superiors. Nihil Obstat: Theodore Van Rossum, S.J., Censor Deputatus. Imprimatur: Michael Augustine, Archbishop of New York. 3. A Complete Catechism of the Catholic Religion. Translated from the German of Rev. Joseph Deharbe, S.J., by the Rev. John Fander. Preceded by A Short History of Revealed Religion, from the Creation to the Present Time. 6th American Edition. Edited by the Rev. James J. Fox, D.D. and the Rev. Thomas McMillan, C.S.P. Reference page 257. New York: Schwartz, Kirwin & Fauss, 1912. Nihil Obstat: Very Rev. Edmund T. Shanahan, D.D., Censor Deputatus. Imprimatur: John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. 4. A Catechism Moral and Controversial, Proper for such as are already advanced to some Knowledge of Christian Doctrine by Thomas Miles Burke, O.P. Reference page 87. Permissu Superiorum. Lisbon, 1752. 5. A Catechism of Catholic Doctrine. Reference page 80. Dublin, 1951. Approved by the Archbishops and Bishops of Ireland. Imprimatur: Joannes Carolus, Archiepiscopus Dublinensis, Hiberniae Primas. 6. A Catechism of Christian Doctrine Prescribed for Use in the Diocese of Victoria, 2nd Ed. Reference page 36. Imprimatur: Alexander MacDonald, Bishop of Victoria. From the Preface: The writer is indebted to the Archbishop of Toronto for much, if not all, of what is best in this book. It has been already done into Spanish, and is used in South America. Toronto: Madigan & Moylan, 1920. 7. A Dogmatic Catechism. From the Italian of Frassinetti. Revised and Edited by the Oblate Fathers of St. Charles. Reference page 188. London: R. Washbourne, 1872. Recommended by Henry Edward, Archbishop of Westminster. 8. An Advanced Catechism of Catholic Faith and Practice, Based Upon the Third Plenary Council Catechism, for Use in the Higher Grades of Catholic Schools. Complied by Rev. Thomas J. O’Brien, Inspector of Parochial Schools in the Diocese of Brooklyn. Reference page 82. Akron: D. H. McBride & Company, 1901. Nihil Obstat: Rev. M. G. Flannery, Censor Librorum Imprimatur: Ign. F. Horstmann, Bishop of Cleveland. 9. An Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism of Christian Doctrine: For the Use of Sunday-School Teachers and Advanced Classes. By the Rev. Thomas L. Kinkead. Reference page 164. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1891. Received approbations from: His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Most Rev. M. A. Corrigan, D.D., Archbishop of New York. Most Rev. William Henry Elder, D.D., Archbishop of Cincinnati. Most Rev. Thomas L. Grace, D.D., Archbishop of Siunia. Most Rev. P.J. Ryan, D.D., Archbishop of Philadelphia. Most Rev. William J. Walsh, D.D., Archbishop OP Dublin, Primate of Ireland. Right Rev. D. M. Bradley. D.D., Bishop of Manchester. Right Rev. Thomas F. Brennan, D.D., Bishop of Dallas. Right Rev. M. F. Burke, D.D., Bishop of Cheyenne. Right Rev. L. De Goesbriand, D.D., Bishop of Burlington. Right Rev. John Foley, D.D., Bishop of Detroit. Right Rev. H. Gabriels, D.D., Bishop-elect of Ogdensburg. Right Rev. N. A. Gallagher, D.D., Bishop of Galveston. Right Rev. Leo Haid, O.S.B., D.D., Vicar Apostolic of North Carolina. Right Rev. John J. Hennessy, D.D., Bishop of Wichita. Right Rev. Junger, D.D., Bishop of Nesqually. Right Rev. John J. Keane, D.D., Rector of the Catholic University, Washington. Right Rev. W. G. McCloskey, D.D., Bishop of Louisville. Right Rev. James Mcgolrick, D.D., Bishop of Duluth. Right Rev. Camillus P. Maes, D.D., Bishop of Covington. Right Rev. C. E. McDonnell, D.D., Bishop-elect of Brooklyn. Right Rev. P. Manogue, D.D., Bishop of Sacramento. Right Rev. Tobias Mullen, D.D., Bishop of Eric. Right Rev. H. P. Northrop, D.D., Bishop of Charleston. Right Rev. Henry Joseph Richter. D.D., Bishop of Grand Rapids. Right Rev. S. V. Ryan, D.D., Bishop of Buffalo. Right Rev. L. Scanlan, D.D., Bishop of Salt Lake. 10. Anecdotes and Examples Illustrating the Catholic Catechism. Selected and Arranged by Rev. Francis Spirago, Professor of Theology. Supplemented, Adapted to the Baltimore Catechism, and Edited by Rev. James J. Baxter, D.D. Reference page 166. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1904. Nihil Obstat: Remigius Lafort, S.T.L., Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: John M. Farley, D.D., Archbishop of New York. 11. Biblical Treasury of the Catechism, 3rd Ed. Complied and Arranged by Rev. Thomas E. Cox. Reference page 182. New York: William H. Young & Company, 1900. Nihil Obstat: T. L. Spalding. Imprimatur: Patrick A. Feehan, D.D., Archbishop of Chicago. 12. Catechism Made Easy, Being a Familiar Explanation of the Catechism of Christian Doctrine, Vol III. by Rev. Henry Gibson, Late Catholic Chaplain to the Kirkdale Gaoland Kirkdale Industrial Schools. Reference pages 15 and 38. London: R Washbourne, 1877. Nihil Obstat: Carolus Canonicus Teebay. Imprimatur: Bernardus, Episcupus Liverpolitanus. 13. Catechism: Doctrinal, Moral, Historical, and Liturgical with Answers to the Objections Drawn from the Sciences Against Religion, Vol. III., 8th Ed. by the Rev. Patrick Power. Reference page 177. London: Burns and Oates, 1905. With Episcopal Approbation. 14. Catechism of the Diocese of Paris. Translated from the French by M. J. Piercy. Reference page 221. London: Richardson and Son, 1850. Approbations: Haying carefully perused the following Translation of an excellent and copious Catechism, published by order of the late saintly Archbishop of Paris, we hesitate not to recommend the same to the English reader, as an elaborate and complete exposition of Catholic doctrine and practice; suitable, from its peculiar plan, as well for the elementary instruction of young persons, as for the edification and benefit of those of riper age. William, Bishop of Ariopolis, Vicar Apostolic of the Eastern District. George, Bishop of Tloa, Vicar Apostolic of the Lancashire District. Bishop Eton. William, Bishop of Samosata. Robert Hogarth, G.V.—Y. D. 15. Catechism of the ''Summa Theologica" of Saint Thomas Aquinas for the Use of the Faithful. By R. P. Thomas Pègues, O.P., Master in Theology. Adapted from the French and done into English by Aelred Whitacre, O.P. Reference page 249. London: Burns Oates and Washbourne Limited, 1922. Received the approbation of Pope Benedict XV. 16. The Catechumen: An Aid to the Intelligent Knowledge of the Catechism. By J. G. Wenham, Canon of Southwark, and Diocesan Inspector of Schools. Reference page 293. London: Burns and Oates, 1888. Nihil Obstat: Thomas Can. Lalor, Censor Deputatus. 17. The Catechism Explained: An Exhaustive Exposition of the Christian Religion, With Special Reference to the Present State of Society and the Spirit of the Age. A Practical Manual for the Use of the Preacher, the Catechist, the Teacher, and the Family. Eighth Edition. From the Original of Rev. Francis Spirago, Professor of Theology. Edited by Rev. Richard F. Clarke, S.J. Reference page 580. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1899. 18. The Catechism, or, Christian Doctrine, by Way of Question and Answer, Drawn Chiefly from the Express Word of God, and Other Pure Sources. 3rd Ed. by the Rev. Andrew Donlevy, LL.D. Reference page 229. Dublin: James Duffy, 1848. Approbations: I do hereby testify to have attentively read and examined the Irish and English Catechism, compiled by M. Andrew Donlevy, Director of the Irish Community at Paris, which, in all points, is very conformable to both Scripture and Tradition, and very useful to all those who are charged with the instruction of the Faithful in the kingdom of Ireland, as clearly containing the Articles of Faith and Purity of Christian Morality. At Paris, the eighteenth of April, 1741. Michael O’Gara, Archbishop of Tuam. Similar Approbations were given at the same time by— James Gallagher, Bishop of Kildare. Patrick Macdonogh, Bishop of Killaloe. F. B. Kelly, O.S.F., Doctor of Sorbonne. Patrick Corr, Doctor of Sorbonne and Provisor of the Irish College. Mathew Mackenna, Doctor of Sorbonne and Provisor of the Irish College. Richard Hennessy, Licentiate of Sorbonne. F. J. Duany, O.E.S.A., Doctor of Sorbonne. Francis Devereux, Principal of the Irish College. 19. The Catechism of Rodez Explained in Form of Sermons: A Work Equally Useful to the Clergy, Religious Communities, and Faithful. By the Abbe Luche. Reference page 395. St. Louis: B. Herder, 1898. Recommended by Rt. Rev. Ign. F. Horstmann, D.D., Bishop of Cleveland. Received the approbation of Louis-August, Bishop of Rodez. 20. The Catechism in Examples by the Rev. D. Chisholm, Vol. IV. 3rd Ed. Reference page 59. London: Burns Oates & Washbourne LTD., 1918. Nihil Obstat: Franciscus M. Wyndham, Censor Deputatus. Imprimatur: Gulielmus, Episcopus Arindelensis, Vicarius Generalis. From the preface to the Second Edition: The unprecedented success which attended the publication of the First Edition of " The Catechism in Examples," and the demand which is now being constantly made for the book, has induced the author to undertake the publication of an entirely new edition, in which, while adhering to the original plan, he has not only thoroughly revised, but also considerably developed, the contents of the work. The book in its first form found its way literally into every part of the world, and demands for a reissue have recently reached the author from almost every country in the Continent of Europe, as well as from America, Australia, Africa, North and South; Ireland especially has been most zealous in its propagation in the past, and in present demands for its reappearance. His late Holiness, Leo XIII., not only gave the book his special approbation and blessing, when brought to his notice by two Archbishops, but asked the author to furnish a copy of it for the Papal Library (see Tablet, February 25, 1888, p. 300). Many members of the Hierarchy have also given it their approbation and commendation, and the teaching Orders of the Church, as well as the clergy in charge of schools, have distributed it in profusion among the prizes they gave to the children under their care; and in many a Catholic home it is the favourite book for pious reading in the family. 21. The Catechism of the Ecclesiastical Provinces of Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa. Reference page 30. Quebec: Printing Establishment of A. Cote & Co., 1888. Approved by the Archbishops and Bishops of those Provinces and Published at Their Order. Imprimatur: E. A. Card. Taschereau, Archpus Quebecen. 22. The Catechism of Saint Pius X. Reference page 52. Approved of by Pope St. Pius X. 23. Teacher’s Handbook to the Catechism: A Practical Explanation of Catholic Doctrine for School and Pulpit. With Special Regard and Minute Directions for the Catechizing of Children, Vol. III. by the Rev. A. Urban. Reference page 35. New York: Joseph H. Wagner, 1904. Nihil Obstat: Remigius Lafort, S.T.L., Censor Librorum Imprimatur: Joannes M. Farley, D.D., Archiepiscopus. 24. The Douay Catechism of 1649: An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine. With Proofs of Scripture on Points Controverted by Way of Question and Answer. By Henry Tuberville, D.D. Reference page 80. New York: John P. Kennedy, 1833. Approved and Recommended for His Diocese, by the Right Rev. Benedict, Bishop of Boston. 25. The Poor Man's Catechism; or, the Christian Doctrine Explained with Short Admonitions. By John Mannock, O.S.B. Reference page 156. Dublin: Richard Coyne, 1825. 26. The Real Principles of Catholics; Or, a Catechism by Way of General Instruction Explaining the Principle Points of the Doctrine & Ceremonies of the Catholic Church, 4th Ed. by the Right Rev. Dr. Hornihold, titular Bishop of Phiomelia and Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England. Reference page 211. Dublin: Richard Coyne, 1821. Approbations: The following Approbations will it is trusted appear decisive as to the Merits of this Work. We approve highly of Doctor Hornihold’s book, “The Real Principles of Catholics, &c.” and we recommend it highly for perusal to Roman Catholics of this Archdiocese. Thomas Troy, D.D. &c. Daniel Murray, D.D. M. H. Hamill, D.D. 27. A Full Course of Instructions for the Use of Catechists; Being An Explanation of the Catechism Entitled "An Abridgment Of Christian Doctrine." By the Rev. John Perry. Reference page 271. New York: D. & J. Sadlier & Co., 1860. Approbations: Approbation of the Most Rev. John Hughes, D.D., Archbishop of New York: The publication of “Perry's Instructions on the Catechism,” by Messrs. Sadlier & Co., has my entire approval. Recommendation of the Right Rev. Bishop Bayley, Bishop of Newark: I am glad to hear that you intend to republish "Perry's Instructions on the Catechism." It is an excellent little book. As a manual for catechists, or as a book of instruction, developing and explaining the Catechism, it is the best work of the sort I am acquainted with. Approbation of the English Edition by the Right Rev, Dr. Wareing Bishop of Ariopolis, Vicar Apostolic of the Eastern District: Having attentively perused the work of the Rev. John Perry…I have great pleasure in recommending the same, as an orthodox and useful exposition of Catholic doctrine, and well calculated to assist as well those who seek for instruction as those who are employed in giving catechetical discourses. 28. Dogmatic and Scriptural Foundation for Catechists: Notes on Baltimore Catechism No. 3 by Rev. Francis J. Connell, C.SS.R., S.T.D., LL.D, L.H.D. Reference page 48. New Jersey: Confraternity Publications, 1955. Imprimi Potest: Very Rev. James Connolly, C.SS.R., Provincial of the Baltimore Province of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer. Nihil Obstat: Bede Babo, O.S.B., Censor librorum. Imprimatur: James A. Mcnulty, Bishop of Paterson. 29. The Baltimore Catechism No. 3 Prepared and Enjoined by Order of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (In Accordance with the New Canon Law). Reference page 53. New York, Boston, Cincinnati, Chicago, San Francisco: Benziger Brothers, 1885. Approbation from James Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, Apostolic Delegate: The Catechism ordered by the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, having been diligently compiled and examined, is hereby approved. Imprimatur: John Cardinal McCloskey, Archbishop of New York. Nihil Obstat: Rev. Remigius Lafort, S.T.L., Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: Michael Augustine, Archbishop of New York. Nihil Obstat: Arthur J. Scanlan, S.T.D., Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: Patrick J. Hayes, D.D., Archbishop of New York. 30. The Catechism of the Council of Trent. Reference page 159. Ordered by the Council of Trent Edited by St. Charles Borromeo and approved of by St. Pope Pius V. Approbations for the Catechism of the Council of Trent taken from the book, A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions for All Sundays and Holydays of the Year Based on the Teachings of the Catechism of the Council of Trent and Harmonized with the Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts, Vol I. Prepared and Arranged by the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O.P., and the Rev. John A. McHugh, O.P. Professors in the Theological Faculty of Maryknoll Seminary, Ossining N. Y. With an Introduction by the Most Rev. Patrick Hayes, D.D., Archbishop of New York: In April, 1545, only a few months after the opening of the Council of Trent, it was decided by the Bishops and theologians of that illustrious assembly that an official book should be prepared for the guidance of pastors and all those charged with preaching and with the instruction of the faithful. It was plain that an explanation of the truths of revelation was always necessary; but at that time, more than ever in preceding ages, it seemed imperative that the faithful should be thoroughly instructed in all the doctrines of faith, because the so-called Reformers had their false teachers and false prophets everywhere abroad, spreading their pernicious errors and endeavoring by all means in their power to turn souls from the way of truth. The need of a complete, popular, and authoritative manual was further heightened by the lack in many of the pre-Reformation clergy of a systematic knowledge and method of explaining the truths of faith, and a consequent neglect of instruction and lack of religious knowledge on the part of the faithful. For some years the Council was occupied with other matters which demanded more immediate attention; but in February, 1562, after having defined and re-approved all the leading doctrines and teachings of the Church, the Fathers of the Council resolved that an official Catechism should be written which would treat, in a manner suited for parochial use, all those truths of Christian doctrine with which the faithful ought to be familiar, and upon which they are supposed to be instructed in particular on all Sundays and Feasts of obligation. Furthermore, it was the wish of the Fathers and authors of this great work, and of the Sovereign Pontiffs and Councils that subsequently approved it, that its contents should be so treated as to harmonize with the Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts throughout the year. Thus the faithful, while being kept ever in touch with the person and life-giving words of Christ, would at the same time be constantly and thoroughly instructed in all the principal doctrines of that revelation which the Saviour has given to the world for man's salvation. After several years of careful labor and numerous revisions, on the part of many Bishops and eminent theologians, the Catechism was brought to completion and issued for the use of parish priests by command of Pope Pius V, toward the end of the year 1566. Translations into the vernacular of every nation were ordered by the Council. No such complete and practical summary of Christian doctrine had appeared since the days of the Apostles. Bishops at once recommended it everywhere and urged their priests so constantly to use and study it for their preaching that its whole contents would at length be committed to memory. It was repeatedly recommended by Pope St. Pius V., and in five Councils held at Milan under St. Charles Borromeo it received the highest praise and commendation. Similar eulogy and commendation were given it by Gregory XIII, the successor of Pius V, by Clement XIII, and in our own times by Leo XIII and Pius X. In short, from the time of its publication down to the present time many Pontiffs and Bishops, and a great number of provincial and diocesan synods in various countries, have vied with one another in celebrating the praises of the Catechism of Trent, and in commanding its use. A few of many testimonies may be useful here. Speaking of the Catechism, Cardinal Valerius, the friend of St. Charles Borromeo, wrote: “This work contains all that is needful for the instruction of the faithful; and its matter is given with such order, clearness, and majesty that through it we seem to hear the Church herself, taught by the Holy Ghost, speaking to us. ... It was composed by order of the Fathers of Trent through the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and was edited by order of the Vicar of Christ.” In an Encyclical Letter to the Bishops and clergy of France, of Sept. 8, 1889, Pope Leo XIII recommended two books which all Seminarians should possess, and constantly read and study, namely, the Summa of St. Thomas and the Roman Catechism. Regarding the latter he said: “This work is remarkable at once for the richness and exactness of its doctrine, and for the elegance of its style; it is a precious summary of all theology, both dogmatic and moral. He who understands it well, will have always at his service those aids by which a priest is enabled to preach with fruit, to acquit himself worthily of the important ministry of the confessional and of the direction of souls, and will be in a position to refute the objections of unbelievers.” Salmanticenses, the great Carmelite commentators on St. Thomas, paid the following high tribute to the Catechism: “The authority of this Catechism has always been of the greatest in the Church, because it was composed by the command of the Council of Trent, because its authors were men of highest learning, and because it was approved after the severest scrutiny by popes Pius V and Gregory XIII, and has been recommended in nearly all the Councils that have been held since the Council of Trent.” Antonio Possevinus, an illustrious Jesuit, and the professor of St. Francis de Sales, said: “The Catechism of the Council of Trent was inspired by the Holy Ghost.” In his immortal Apologia Cardinal Newman writes: “The Catechism of the Council of Trent was drawn up for the express purpose of providing preachers with subjects for their sermons; and, as my whole work has been a defence of myself, I may here say that I rarely preach a sermon but I go to this beautiful and complete Catechism to get both my matter and my doctrine.” “Its merits,” says Dr. Donovan, who first translated the Catechism into English, “have been recognized by the universal Church. The first rank which has been awarded the ‘Imitation’ among spiritual books, has been unanimously given to the Roman Catechism as a compendium of Catholic theology. It was the result of the aggregate labors of the most distinguished of the Fathers of Trent, . . . and is therefore stamped with the impress of superior worth.” Dr. John Hagan, Vice-Rector of the Irish College in Rome, says: “The Roman Catechism is a work of exceptional authority. At the very least it has the same authority as a dogmatic Encyclical, it is an authoritative exposition of Catholic doctrine given forth, and guaranteed to be orthodox by the Catholic Church and her supreme head on earth. The compilation of it was the work of various individuals; but the result of their combined labors was accepted by the Church as a precious abridgment of dogmatic and moral theology. Official documents have occasionally been issued by Popes to explain certain points of Catholic teaching to individuals, or to local Christian communities; whereas the Roman Catechism comprises practically the whole body of Christian doctrine, and is addressed to the whole Church. Its teaching is not infallible; but it holds a place between approved catechisms and what is de fide.” 31. Divine Grace: A Series of Instructions Arranged According to the Baltimore Catechism: An Aid to Teachers and Preachers. Edited by Rev. Edmund J. Wirth, Ph.D., D.D., Professor at St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, N.Y. Reference page 91. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1903. Nihil Obstat: Remigius Lafort, Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: JNO. M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. 32. Familiar Explanation of Christian Doctrine, Adapted for the Family and More Advanced Students in Catholic Schools and Colleges, No. III. By Fr. Michael Müller, C.S.S.R. Reference page 295. New York: Catholic Publication Society, 1875. Approbations: Nihil Obstat: Joseph Helmpraecht, C.SS.R. Imprimatur: J. Roosevelt Bayley, Archiep. Baltimorensis. 33. Instructions on the Doctrines, Duties, and Resources of the Catholic Religion. Translated from La Doctrine Chrétienne par Lhomond. 2nd American, from the 8th English Ed. by the Rev. James Appleton. Reference page 217. Philadelphia: Michael Kelly, 1841. Approbations: We approve of the republication of the “Instructions on the Doctrines, Duties, and Resources, of the Catholic Religion, translated from the French of Lhomond, by the Rev. James Appleton.” Given under our hand, at Philadelphia, this 3rd day of May, 1841. Francis Patrick Kenrick, Bp. Arath and Coadj. of Bp. of Philadelphia. 34. Works of the Right Rev. Bishop Hay of Edinburgh in Five Volumes, Vol. V: The Pious Christian. A new edition edited under the supervision of the Right Rev. Bishop Strain. Reference page 87. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1871.Please remember Edmund in your prayers for his contribution.35. The Converts Catechism of Christian Doctrine by Rev. Peter Geiermann, C.SS.R. Reference page 70. B. Herder Book Co., 1930. Approbations: Imprimi Potest: Francis F. Fagan, C.SS.R., Provincial. Nihil Obstat: M. J. Bresnahan, Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: Joannes J. Glennon, S.T.D., Archiepiscopus. 36. A Catechisme; Or, Christian Doctrine by Lawrence Vaux, B.D., Canon Regular and Sub-prior of St. Martin's Monastery, Louvain, Sometime Warden of the Collegiate Church, Manchester. Reprinted from an Edition of 1583. Reference page 53. Manchester: Charles E. Simms, 1885. 37. Doctrinal and Scriptural Catechism; Or, Instructions on the Principal Truths of the Christian Religion. By Rev. P. Collot, Doctor of the Sorbonne. Translated from the French by Mrs. J. Sadlier. Reference page 154. New York: D. & J. Sadlier & Co., 1862. With the approbation of the Most Rev. John Hughes, D.D., Archbishop of New York. 38. The Catholic Christian Instructed in the Sacraments, Sacrifice, Ceremonies, and Observances of the Church, by Way of Question and Answer. By the Rt. Rev. Dr. Challoner. Reference page 33. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co, 1852. 39. Historical Catechism; Containing a Summary of Sacred History and Christian Doctrine. By Monsieur Fleury, Abbot of Loc-Deiu, late Sub-preceptor to the King of Spain, the Duke of Burgundy, and the Duke of Berry, 5th Ed. Reference page 210. Dublin: Richard Coyne, 1834. 40. The Catechism of the Christian Religion; Being, with Some Small Changes, a Compendium of the Catechism of Montpellier, in which, by the Light of Scripture and Tradition, are Explained the History, Dogmas, Morality, Sacraments, Prayers, Ceremonies and Usages of the Church of Christ. By Rev. Stephen Keenan. Reference page 287. Boston: Patrick Donohoe, 1852. Published with the approval of the Rt. Rev. John B. Fitzgerald, Bishop of Boston. 41. Catechism of Perseverance: An Historical, Doctrinal, Moral and Liturgical Exposition of the Catholic Religion, translated from the French of Abbé Gaume by the Rev. F. B. Jamison. Fiftieth edition, revised and enlarged. Reference page 209. Boston: Thomas B. Noonan & Co, 1850. Approbations: Published with the approbation of the Most Rev. Archbishop of Baltimore. We cheerfully recommend to the patronage of the Catholic community the Catechism of Perseverance, translated from the “Petit Catechisme de Perseverance” of the Abbe Gaume, as a work well calculated to impart solid historical, liturgical, moral, and doctrinal instruction in an agreeable format, and being particularly well suited for the purpose of higher religious instruction in Catholic schools and academies. Martin J., Bishop of Louisville. Michael, Bishop of Mobile. Anthony, Bishop of New Orleans. John, Bishop of Galveston. 42. A Manual of the Catholic Religion for Catechists, Teachers and Self-Instruction, 6th Ed. By the Rev. F. X. Weninger, D.D., S.J. Reference page 248. Cincinnati: John P. Walsh, 1867. Approbations: I have read and examined the “Manual of the Catholic Doctrine,” by Rev. F. X. Weninger, S.J., with a great deal of pleasure and delight. I know of no work more clear and explicit, or that better meets the exigencies of the times than this; hence, I would exceedingly like to see it translated into English, and freely circulated within the diocese. John Henry Luers, Bishop of Fort Wayne.