Vatican Council (1869-1870)
··· Promulgated canons relating to faith and the Constitution of the Church; defined solemnly the infallibility of the pope. (This council was adjourned but not closed)
Council of Trent (1545-1564)
··· Called to combat heresies of so-called Reformers of the 16th century; proclaimed Bible and Tradition as the Rule of Faith; issued canons on the Sacraments and decrees of purgatory, indulgences, justification, invocation and veneration of saints, veneration of images and relics; published decree on the "Index" of forbidden books.
Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1517)
··· Defined the relations of pope to General Councils; condemned certain errors regarding the nature of the human soul; called for a crusade against the Turks.
Council of Basle (1431-1439)
··· Called to effect the union of Greeks and other Oriental sects with the Latin Church; to re-establish peace among Christian princes.
Council of Constance (1414-1418)
··· Suppressed the Western Schism; ecclesiastical reform in "head and members"; condemned the heretics Wycliff and Hus.
Council of Vienne (1311-1313)
··· Condemned the extreme views of Olivi and the heresies of Fraticelli, Dulcinists, Beghards, and Beguines; suppressed the Kinghts Templar; sought aid for the Holy Land.
Second Council of Lyons (1274)
··· Called to promote ecclesiastical discipline; to effect the union of the Greeks with the Latin Church; to aid the Holy Land.
First Council of Lyons (1245)
··· Called in behalf of the Holy Land, and on account of the hostility of the Emperor Frederick II towards the Holy See.
Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
··· Condemned errors of Albigenses, Joachim of Floria and Almaric of Bena; prescribed annual Confession and Communion for all; promoted ecclesiastical discipline; ordered a crusade for the recovery of the Holy Land.
Third Lateran Council (1179)
··· Reformed ecclesiastical discipline; decreed papal elections by two-thirds majority of cardinals at conclave; confirmed the Peace of Venice (between Alexander III and Barbarossa).
Second Lateran Council (1139)
··· Suppressed last remnants of the schism of Anacletus II; reaffirmed principles of the Gregorian Reform; silenced and banished from Italy Arnold of Brescia; condemned the heresy of Peter of Bruys.
First Lateran Council (1123)
··· Called to confirm the peace between Church and State after the settlement of the Investiture Question.
Fourth Council of Constantinople (869)
··· Disposed the usurper, Photius, and suppressed the Greek Schism.
Second Council of Nicaea (787)
··· Condemned the heresy of the image-breakers (Iconoclasm).
Third Council of Constantinople (680-681)
··· Declared against the Monothelites, who taught one will in Christ, by defining that Christ had two wills, human and divine.
Second Council of Constantinople (553)
··· Condemned, as savoring of Nestorius, the so-called Three Chapters, the erroneous books of Theodore of Mopsuestia and the teaching of Theodoret of Cyrrhus and Ibas of Edessa.
Council of Chalcedon (451)
··· Condemned the heresy of Eutyches (Monophysitism); declared Christ had two natures, human and divine.
Council of Ephesus (431)
··· Condemned the heresy of Nestorius; defined that there was one Person in Christ and defended the Divine Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
First Council of Constantinople (381)
··· Condemned the heresy of Macedonius; defined the divinity of the Holy Ghost; confirmed and extended the Nicene Creed.
First Council of Nicaea (325)
··· Condemned the heresy of Arius; defined clearly that the Son of God was consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father; formulated the Nicene Creed.